John Marx, MD
- For hyperkalemia, calcium chloride and gluconate (former contains 3x more Ca++ per amp) are the only agents that act directly on the heart. Multiple doses are often required. Treatment is usually indicated at levels 6.5 or higher.
- The EKG changes in hyperkalemia are peaked T waves, small or indiscernible p waves, widening of the QRS and eventually a sinusoidal rhythm.
- Hyponatremia can be categorized into the following; sample error, pseudo, hypervolemic, euvolemic and hypovolemic.
- The treatment for hypernatriema is usually fluid restriction; for hyponatriema is usually NS.
- The serum sodium goes down 1.6mEq per 100mg rise in glucose over 100.